Sunday, April 6, 2014

Abstract File Systems with Flysystem

Reading and writing files is an integral aspect of any programming language, but the underlying implementation can vary enormously. For example, the finer details of writing data to the local filesystem compared to uploading over FTP is very different – yet conceptually, it’s very similar.

In addition to old warhorses like FTP, online storage is increasingly ubiquitous and inexpensive – with scores of services available such as Dropbox, Amazon’s S3 and Rackspace’s Cloud Files – but these all use subtly different methods for reading and writing.

That’s where flysystem comes in. It provides a layer of abstraction over multiple file systems, which means you don’t need to worry where the files are, how they’re stored, or need be concerned with low-level I/O operations. All you need to worry about are the high-level operations such as reading, writing and organizing into directories.

Such abstraction also makes it simpler to switch from one system to another without having to rewrite vast swathes of application code. It also provides a logical approach to moving or copying data from one storage system to another, without worrying about the underlying implementation.

You can use Dropbox, S3, Cloud Files, FTP or SFTP as if they were local; saving a file becomes the same process whether it’s being saved locally or transferred over the network. You can treat zip archives as if they were a bunch of folders, without worrying about the nitty gritty of creating and compressing the archives themselves.

Flysystem also supports technologies such as Memcached and Predis, treating them as if they were file systems. That way you can read a “file” without worrying whether it’s coming from disk (e.g. a local filesystem or an S3 bucket) or straight from memory (e.g. Memcached).


Installation and Basic Usage


As ever, Composer is the best way to install:
"league/flysystem": "0.2.*"

Now you can simply create one or more instances of League\Flysystem\Filesystem, by passing in the appropriate adapter.

For example, to use a local directory:

use League\Flysystem\Filesystem;
use League\Flysystem\Adapter\Local as Adapter;

$filesystem = new Filesystem(new Adapter('/path/to/directory'));

To use an Amazon S3 bucket, there’s slightly more configuration involved:

use Aws\S3\S3Client;
use League\Flysystem\Adapter\AwsS3 as Adapter;

$client = S3Client::factory(array(
    'key'    => '[your key]',
    'secret' => '[your secret]',

$filesystem = new Filesystem(new Adapter($client, 'bucket-name', 'optional-prefix'));

To use Dropbox:

use Dropbox\Client;
use League\Flysystem\Adapter\Dropbox as Adapter;

$client = new Client($token, $appName);
$filesystem = new Filesystem(new Adapter($client, 'optional/path/prefix'));

(To get the token and application name, create an application using Dropbox’s App Console.)
Here’s an example for SFTP – you may not need every option listed here:

use League\Flysystem\Adapter\Sftp as Adapter;

$filesystem = new Filesystem(new Adapter(array(
    'host' => '',
    'port' => 21,
'username' => 'username',
'password' => 'password',
'privateKey' => 'path/to/or/contents/of/privatekey',
'root' => '/path/to/root',
'timeout' => 10,

Or Memcached:

use League\Flysystem\Adapter\Local as Adapter;
use League\Flysystem\Cache\Memcached as Cache;

$memcached = new Memcached;
$memcached->addServer('localhost', 11211);
$filesystem = new Filesystem(new Adapter(__DIR__.'/path/to/root'), 
new Cache($memcached, 'storageKey', 300));
// Storage Key and expire time are optional

For other adapters such as normal FTP, Predis or WebDAV, refer to the documentation.


Reading and Writing to a File System


As far as your application code is concerned, you simply need to replace calls such as file_exists(), fopen() / fclose(), fread / fwrite and mkdir() with their flysystem equivalents.
For example, take the following legacy code, which copies a local file to an S3 bucket:

    $filename = "/usr/local/something.txt";
    if (file_exists($filename)) {
        $handle = fopen($filename, "r");
        $contents = fread($handle, filesize($filename));

        $aws = Aws::factory('/path/to/config.php');
        $s3 = $aws->get('s3');

            'Bucket' => 'my-bucket',
            'Key'    => 'data.txt',
            'Body'   => $content,
            'ACL'    => 'public-read',

Using flysystem, it might look a little like this:

    $local = new Filesystem(new Adapter('/usr/local/'));
    $remote = new Filesystem(
            'key'    => '[your key]',
            'secret' => '[your secret]',

    if ($local->has('something.txt')) {
        $contents = $local->read('something.txt');
        $remote->write('data.txt', $contents, ['visibility' : 'public']);

Notice how we’re using terminology such as reading and writing, local and remote – high level abstractions, with no worrying about things like creating and destroying file handles.

Here’s a summary of the most important methods on the League\Flysystem\Filesystem class:

Method Example
Reading $filesystem->read('filename.txt')
Writing $filesystem->write('filename.txt', $contents)
Updating $filesystem->update('filename.txt')
Writing or updating $filesystem->put('filename.txt')
Checking existence $filesystem->has('filename.txt')
Deleting $filesystem->delete('filename.txt')
Renaming $filesystem->rename('old.txt', 'new.txt')
Reading Files $filesystem->read('filename.txt')
Getting file info $filesystem->getMimetype('filename.txt')


Creating directories $filesystem->createDir('path/to/directory')
Deleting directories $filesystem->deleteDir('path/to/directory')


Automatically Creating Directories


When you call $filesystem->write(), it ensures that the directory you’re trying to write to exists – if it doesn’t, it creates it for you recursively.

So this…

$filesystem->write('/path/to/a/directory/somewhere/somefile.txt', $contents);
…is basically the equivalent of:
$path = '/path/to/a/directory/somewhere/somefile.txt';
if (!file_exists(dirname($path))) {
    mkdir(dirname($path), 0755, true);
file_put_contents($path, $contents);


Managing Visibility


Visibility – i.e., permissions – can vary in implementation or semantics across different storage mechanisms, but flysystem abstracts them as either “private” or “public”. So, you don’t need to worry about specifics of chmod, S3 ACLs, or whatever terminology a particular mechanism happens to use.
You can either set the visibility when calling write():

$filesystem->write('filename.txt', $data, ['visibility' : 'private']);

Prior to 5.4, or according to preference:

$filesystem->write('filename.txt', $data, array('visibility' => 'private'));

Alternatively, you can set the visibility of an existing object using setVisibility:

$filesystem->setVisibility('filename.txt', 'private');

Rather than set it on a file-by-file basis, you can set a default visibility for a given instance in its constructor:

$filesystem = new League\Flysystem\Filesystem($adapter, $cache, [
'visibility' => AdapterInterface::VISIBILITY_PRIVATE

You can also use getVisibility to determine a file’s permissions:

if ($filesystem->getVisibility === 'private') {
    // file is secret


Listing Files and Directories


You can get a listing of all files and directories in a given directory like this:


The output would look a little like this;

[0] =>
  array(8) {
  'dirname' =>
    string(0) ""
    'basename' =>
    string(11) "filters.php"
    'extension' =>
    string(3) "php"
    'filename' =>
    string(7) "filters"
    'path' =>
    string(11) "filters.php"
    'type' =>
    string(4) "file"
    'timestamp' =>
    'size' =>
[1] =>
array(5) {
    'dirname' =>
    string(0) ""
    'basename' =>
    string(4) "lang"
    'filename' =>
    string(4) "lang"
    'path' =>
    string(4) "lang"
    'type' =>
    string(3) "dir"

If you wish to incorporate additional properties into the returned array, you can use listWith():

$flysystem->listWith(['mimetype', 'size', 'timestamp']);

To get recursive directory listings, the second parameter should be set to TRUE:

$filesystem->listContents(null, true);

The null simply means we start at the root directory.

To get just the paths:



Mounting Filesystems


Mounting filesystems is a concept traditionally used in operating systems, but which can also be applied to your application. Essentially it’s like creating references – shortcuts, in a sense – to filesystems, using some sort of identifier.

Flysystem provides the Mount Manager for this. You can pass one or more adapters upon instantiation, using strings as keys:

$ftp = new League\Flysystem\Filesystem($ftpAdapter);
$s3 = new League\Flysystem\Filesystem($s3Adapter);

$manager = new League\Flysystem\MountManager(array(
    'ftp' => $ftp,
    's3' => $s3,

You can also mount a file system at a later time:

$local = new League\Flysystem\Filesystem($localAdapter);
$manager->mountFilesystem('local', $local);

Now you can use the identifiers as if they were protocols in URI’s:

// Get the contents of a local file…
$contents = $manager->read('local://path/to/file.txt');

// …and upload to S3
$manager->write('s3://path/goes/here/filename.txt', $contents);

It’s perhaps more useful to use identifiers which are generic in nature, e.g.:

$s3 = new League\Flysystem\Filesystem($s3Adapter);
$manager = new League\Flysystem\MountManager(array(
    'remote' => new League\Flysystem\Filesystem($s3Adapter),

// Save some data to remote storage
$manager->write('remote://path/to/filename', $data);

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